Major disorders in pregnancy and their management of abnormal


Major disorders in pregnancy

Sometimes a major problem can be more trouble. If you have a major problem, check with your doctor immediately. Finally, I have some tips so that you can do it yourself.

1. Bleeding in early pregnancy

Occasionally, a small amount of bleeding may occur at the time of the second or even third periods, and there are instances in which women have continued to have virtually normal periods for six or more months of what was an otherwise normal pregnancy. This usually goes under the heading of a partially suppressed period. The true significance of bleedings at the time of a suppressed period in early pregnancy is that they do not seem to affect the pregnancy; they do indicate that the pregnancy is unstable, and it is certainly true that miscarriage is more likely in a woman who has had partially suppressed periods than in one who has not. Doctors consider it wise for a woman who has bled at the time of her first period to rest quietly till her next period is expected.


2. Abortion (miscarriage)

Bleeding from the vagina is abnormal at any stage of pregnancy and may be due to several causes. Some are of little or no significance, while others are potentially more dangerous. She must therefore report bleeding, excessive vaginal discharge, or any acute abdominal pain to her doctor immediately.

An abortion, by definition, is the discharge by the uterus of the products of conception before the 24th week of pregnancy. There is no difference between an abortion and a miscarriage, despite the frequently held view that an abortion is something that is induced and a miscarriage is something that occurs spontaneously. The two terms are synonymous and are so used here.


3. Blighted Ovum

A pregnancy where the fetus does not develop properly is termed a blighted ovum. It is generally known to have occurred in most cases because the husband’s seminal count is usually deficient and contains more abnormal sperm than usual.

A big ovum can be diagnosed as early as the 6th week by ultrasonic scan because the early-developing fetus will not be visible.

4. Ectopic Pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy that is situated outside the cavity of the uterus and most frequently occurs in the fallopian tubes. The first symptom is pain, which becomes severe and is followed by bleeding, whereas in abortion, bleeding invariably precedes any pain or discomfort.


5. Antepartum Haemorrhage

Before the 24th week of pregnancy, any bleeding is, by definition, a threat to miscarry or abort and is known as a threatened abortion. After the 24th week, however, when the child is viable, such bleeding, known as antepartum hemorrhage (bright red blood coming from the vagina after the 24th week of pregnancy), should be reported to the doctor immediately.


6. Incompetent Cervix

An incompetent cervix will cause miscarriage at about the 20th week of pregnancy. The muscle surrounding the internal os may have been damaged so that it is incapable of keeping the cervix closed during pregnancy. The internal cervical os will then start to open soon after the 14th week, and by about the 20th week of pregnancy, the cervix will be about 2–3 cm dilaed. At this stage, the membranes, or bag of waters, will bulge through the cervix into the vagina and will eventually break. There will be a sudden loss of a large quantity of water from the uterus and the vagina, followed by miscarriage, which usually occurs fairly quickly with comparatively little discomfort.


7. Incompetent Cervix

This is a strange abnormality of pregnancy in which the placental tissue alone develops in much the same way as it does in a blighted ovum. All the signs and symptoms of early pregnancy are present and may frequently be rather excessive. It may be first suspected at about the 14th or 16th week of pregnancy, when the uterus is much larger than it should be. This rapid enlargement may also cause intermittent vaginal bleeding. The diagnosis may be very difficult, especially in the early stages of pregnancy, although the continuous, intermittent loss of a small amount of bright or dark blood may arouse suspicion. No fetal movement will be felt, and a fetal heart will not be heard. An ultrasonic scan should be done at once in such cases.


8. Polyhydramnios

The normal amount of amniotic fluid at term is approximately 1 litter. If the amount is thought to exceed 2 litters, then a condition of polyhydramnios is present. This is a potentially dangerous condition and occurs in about 2–3 percent of all pregnancies.

9. Red degeneration

Red degeneration is a strange and peculiar condition in which a fibroid becomes acutely inflamed. This usually happens in the middle of pregnancy, and the fibroid suddenly becomes extremely tender and painful. The amount of pain can be very considerable, and it can be very difficult to arrive at an exact diagnosis. The treatment is complete bed rest. The pain usually passes off spontaneously in about 48 hours, after which the fibroid becomes smaller and often causes no more trouble. 


10. Fibroids in pregnancy

The majority of fibroids are of no significance and have no effect upon a woman’s fertility, her pregnancy, or her delivery. Some, however, impinge upon or distort the actual cavity of the uterus and may cause complications in pregnancy, as may a very large fibroid, which, by virtue of its size, distorts the uterus and the other pelvic organs. Large fibroids may be responsible for the onset of premature labor.


11. Severe sickness

Severe sickness in pregnancy, known as hyperemesis gravidarum, is less common than it used to be. Nausea is a very common symptom in early pregnancy, frequently associated with a certain amount of vomiting. If vomiting becomes excessive, the pregnant woman will show signs of starvation.

This condition is usually corrected within a few days.


12. Pre-Eclampsia

Pre-eclampsia is a condition that is specific to pregnancy in which two of the three symptoms, viz., raised blood pressure, swelling of hands, face feet or ankles, or protein in the urine, are present. The cause of pre-eclampsia is still unknown, despite a great deal of research. One aspect of the care of the pregnant woman in the antenatal stages is always directed towards the prevention of pre-eclampsia. This condition can almost be avoided if the pregnant woman understands the importance of antenatal check-ups and carries out her doctor’s instructions, especially those regarding her diet.


13. Pre-Eclampsia

Eclampsia is a more severe form of pre-eclampsia. Any woman who is suffering from pre-eclampsia. Any woman who is suffering from pre-eclampsia runs a risk of developing eclampsia, which is characterized by the occurrence of convulsions or fits. The fits last approximately 1 minute and are followed by a period of unconsciousness. Eclampsia occurs in later pregnancy, or it may begin during labor or even after delivery. When a convulsion happens, usually all the signs and symptoms of pre-eclampsia are present.


14. Ovarian cysts in pregnancy 

The ovaries always develop small cysts (up to 4cm in diameter) during pregnancy, and these are of no consequence. Occasionally, however, a large ovarian cyst measuring more than 6 cm in diameter is found in early pregnancy. When a cyst of this size is discovered, it is generally removed at the first reasonable. Opportunity.


15. Placental insufficiency 

A satisfactory and normal placenta is, of course, vital if a normal, healthy baby is to be produced. A complete failure of the placenta to develop will result in abortion at an early stage. A second type of placental insufficiency may occur after the placenta has properly developed. When this second type of placental insufficiency occurs, it results in a slowdown and, later, a cessation of the actual growth of the baby.

The recognition of primary and secondary placental insufficiency is one of the main duties of the doctors at antenatal check-ups, and modern scientific advances have made this much easier.


16. Death of the fetus in the uterus

On very rare occasions, the baby dies in the uterus. If this occurs before the 24th week of pregnancy, it will inevitably lead to miscarriages. If it occurs after the 24th week, it will inevitably result in delivery occurring fairly soon. Most women at some stages of their pregnancy feel certain that their baby has died, especially if they do not feel it moving for some time. It must, however, be remembered that even babies have periods of inactivity, and so long as a woman feels her baby move on average 10 times in a day at least, there is no cause for concern.